Ha Noi Department of Natural Resources and Environment

PORTAL MONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION

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Q&A
Q&A

How is Vietnam calculating the AQI?

The way of calculating AQI index of Vietnam is specified in the Vietnam Environment Administration's Decision No. 1459 / QD-TCMT of November 12, 2019, promulgating the Technical Guidance on calculation and publication of Vietnam's air quality index. Male"

 

What is Air Pollution?

Air pollution is a change in air composition, including dust, vapors and gases that adversely affect human health, harm animals, plants, materials and can cause problems. global environment.

Air pollution includes: indoor and outdoor air pollution.

 

What causes air pollution?

Air pollution is caused by an increase in the concentration of air pollutants. These include dust (PM10, PM2.5, suspended dust), gases (CO, O3, NO2, SO2, etc.) and bacteria, viruses, etc. Depending on specific characteristics and conditions, each country has Different technical standards for air quality. These substances come from natural phenomena and from human activities.

  • From natural phenomena: Volcanic eruption, decomposition of animals, sandstorms ...
  • From human activities: Cooking with charcoal, smoking cigarettes, waterpipe tobacco, using certain chemicals (washing liquid, house paint, cleaning house ...), burning votive ...
  • Transportation : Transportation is a major source of onkk in cities. The more vehicles on the road, the more onkk the traffic.
  • Operating energy production from burning fuel
  • Industrial production : Different industries generate different emissions, especially factories with old technology processes, outdated equipment and no exhaust treatment unit.
  • Garbage collection and treatment activities: Dispose of rubbish indiscriminately, burn outdoor waste without emission control
  • Agricultural production : Burning straw, using fertilizers and plant protection products is rampant

 

Why should we be concerned about air pollution?

According to WHO statistics: In the world in 2015 there were 7 million deaths from air pollution in Vietnam more than 60,000 deaths in 2016 from heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. and pneumonia are all linked to air pollution. Air pollution is the cause of:

  • 29% of deaths from lung cancer
  • 24% of deaths from cardiovascular disease
  • 25% of stroke deaths
  • 43% of deaths from lung diseases

Air pollution can cause immediate and long-term effects on human health.

 

The information should refer to air pollution?

WHO provides reference information for 10 things to know about air pollution

  • Nine out of ten people breathe polluted air.
  • Air pollution kills 7 million people every year, 4 million people die from indoor air pollution.
  • 91% of these early deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, and is the largest in WHO's Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions.
  • Countries should implement better urban planning policies, regulate dirty emissions and ban highly polluting vehicles.
  • An extremely small contaminant - PM2.5 - is so small that it can pass through many of our body's protective armor like mucous membranes and other barriers, damaging our lungs, heart and brain. .
  • Children are severely affected by air pollution. Exposure to air pollution has been linked to respiratory disease, cancer and cognitive impairment in infants, children and adolescents.
  • Household air pollution is a significant challenge and 3 billion people do not have access to clean fuels and technology for cooking (women and children are most likely to be affected, because they are indoors. longer in places where people use stoves and lamps to pollute the house).
  • Individuals, when they have the option, use cleaner burning technologies and fuels for household activities like cooking, heating or lighting; Avoid burning waste and recycling as much as possible, and walk or cycle instead of driving a car.
  • The main pollutants include particulate matter, a mixture of solid and liquid droplets generated primarily from fuel combustion; nitrogen dioxide from road traffic; ozone in the ground, caused by the reaction of sunlight with pollutants from industrial facilities and vehicle emissions; and sulfur dioxide, an invisible gas from burning fossil fuels like coal.
  • Air pollution is also damaging the health of our planet by promoting climate change.

 

Are children polluted by air pollution?

WHO provides six reasons to pay special attention to protecting infants and children from air pollution:

  • A child's lungs are still developing and air pollution can hinder this biological process
  • The child's body is less likely to metabolize, detoxify and excrete the toxins present in air pollution
  • A child's brain is still developing and neurotoxic compounds in air pollution can affect children's cognitive development.
  • Children breathe more air per unit of body weight than adults
  • Children are more active and therefore breathe in more air pollution
  • Babies born to women exposed to air pollution during pregnancy are more likely to give birth prematurely and underweight

 

How to protect your health when air pollution?

Monitor air quality status regularly to respond appropriately to air pollution. Proactively protect health in the following ways:

  • Minimize outdoor activities
  • Use appropriate masks, capable of preventing fine dust PM2.5
  • Wash eyes, nose, rinse mouth and soap after contacting skin from outside
  • Regular physical activity, exercise, yoga ... breathe deeply with your abdomen
  • Follow a sensible diet

 

How to improve air quality?

  • Take more public transit
  • Energy saving
  • Do not use charcoal anymore or burn anything that causes onkk such as burning garbage, burning straw ...
  • No smoking
  • Plant more trees

 

How to protect children from outdoor air pollution?

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends five ways to help protect children from outdoor air pollution

  • Stop burning household and agricultural waste. Compost and use local services to recycle and dispose of your garbage whenever possible
  • Think about ways you can reduce your child's exposure to air pollution from vehicle exhaust. Some actions may include avoiding busy roads and going quieter roads with less traffic, backing off the road if you see a heavily polluted vehicle approaching, and carrying your baby or young children on a busy street, so they're not the same height as emissions
  • Keep your kids healthy - make sure they are up to date with immunizations, have a healthy diet and plenty of opportunities to play and be physically active
  • Monitor air pollution levels if your city has an air quality monitoring station and pay attention to the impact of air pollution on your children to know when and how to take protective measures. (for example, indoors).
  • Raise public awareness of the health impact of air pollution and work with health care providers, community leaders and relevant agencies to promote pollution reduction policies. air pollution and protect children's health.

 

How to protect children from indoor air pollution?

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends five ways to help protect children from indoor air pollution

  • Do not smoke indoors or near children, but make sure they are supervised
  • Use cleaner fuels and technologies to cook, heat, and light up your home - choose electricity, natural gas, liquefied gas, biogas or solar cookers or ovens
  • Use extremely low emission stoves with treated solid fuel (wood pellets) if cleaner options are not available
  • Always cook in a well-ventilated area, or outside if it is difficult to ventilate your kitchen or cooking area
  • Avoid using kerosene lamps or stoves for cooking or lighting
  • Do not light candles or use air fresheners, add toxic chemicals to the air